Leonard scored 30 points for Team LeBron, helping his side win 157-155 over Team Giannis. The Los Angeles Clippers forward also recorded seven rebounds, four assists, and two steals while shooting 8-of-14 from beyond the arc.
The NBA renamed the All-Star MVP award on Saturday in honor of the late Bryant, who died Jan. 26 in a helicopter crash in California.
"I want to thank Kobe for everything he's done for me, all the long talks and workouts - thank you," Leonard said Sunday after receiving the trophy. "This one's for him."
Bryant often worked with Leonard during the summer after the former retired from the NBA in 2016. Leonard was one of several attendees at a private workout hosted by the Los Angeles Lakers legend in September.
Bryant still shares the record with Bob Pettit for the most All-Star MVP awards in NBA history, winning four over the course of his 20-year career.
Sunday marked Leonard's fourth All-Star Game appearance. He has now been selected to the contest as a member of three different teams: the San Antonio Spurs, the Toronto Raptors, and the Clippers.